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I know you all know all these commands,but today I ma posting this for beginners.So here let's start.
First of open command prompt,if you don't know then go to "Start > All programs > Accessories > Command prompt". Or press "Windows key + R" and "Run" will open then type "cmd" in Run window and hit enter.

Ok let me comeback to our main topic,here are some useful commands for hackers listed below.

ping
nslookup
net user
tracert
arp
route
netstat
ipconfig
help


1. Ping

This command allows you to know if the host you are pinging is alive or not, which means if it is up at the time of executing the "ping" command.

ping x.x.x.x (x is the IP address of host)

or

ping google.com (http://www.google.com is the website you want to ping, but you don't know the IP)

Note: if the host you pinging is blocking ICMP packets, then the result will be host is down.

2. nslookup

nslookup is a network administration command-line tool available for many computer operating systems for querying the Domain Name System (DNS) to obtain domain name or IP address mapping or for any other specific DNS record. It hsa many functionalities.
If you want to to find out IP of specific Mail Severs then

nslookup [enter]
set type=mx [enter]
gmail.com
This command will give you the mail server IP of gmail.com.

3. netuser

This command is also very useful to create and modify user accounts on computers.


net user [enter] (Displays a list of the user accounts on the local computer)
net user /domain [enter] (Displays a list of the user accounts on the domain)
net user girish * /add [enter] (Creates a local user account named girish and prompts you for the password)
net user girish 123456 /add [enter] (Creates a local user account named girish with a password of 123456)
net user hacker * /domain /add [enter] (Creates a domain user account named hacker and prompts you for the password)
net user hacker 007 /domain /add [enter] (Creates a domain user account named hacker with a password of 007)
net user girish * [enter] (Changes local user account girish’s password; prompts you to enter it and again to confirm)
net user hacker 999 /domain [enter] (Changes domain user account hacker’s password to 999)
net user girish /delete [enter] (Deletes the local user account named girish)
net user hacker /domain /delete [enter] (Deletes the domain user account named hacker)

4. tracert

This command will give you the hops that a packet will travel to reach its final destination.In short The traceroute utility checks how many "hops" (transfers through other computers on a network) it takes for your computer to contact another computer. You can use traceroute if you know the other computer's IP address, web site address.

tracert x.x.x.x (x is the IP address)

or

tracert google.com (google.com is the website you don't know the IP)

5. arp

This command will show you the arp(Address resolution Protocol) table. This is good to know if someone is doing arp poisoning in your LAN.

arp -a

6. route

This Command used to manually configure the routes in the routing table. This command will show you the routing table, gateway, interface and metric.

route print (Commands PRINT Prints a route,ADD Adds a route,DELETE Deletes a route,CHANGE Modifies an existing route destination)

7. netstat

netstat is a useful command for checking your network configuration and activity. It is in fact a collection of several tools lumped together.

netstat

or

netstat -a (this will show you all the listening ports and connection with DNS names)
netstat -n (this will show you all the open connection with IP addresses)
netstat -an (this will combined both of the above)

8. ipconfig

This command will show tons of very helpful things. Your IP, gateway, dns in use.

ipconfig

or

ipconfig /all

9. help

And least but not last, the "help" command.

yourcommand /help

or

yourcommand /?

This command will help you to understand what it does and all the switchs available for each command.
Very useful if you know the command, but forgot the right switch.
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